☆Difference between Breathing and Respiration

Breathing ( ventilation)

 1-It is a preliminary step for  respiration and is a physical process . It involves inspiration of fresh air and expiration of foul air. 
 2-  It does not release any energy.
3- It is  an extra cellular process.  
4. It does not involve enzyme action.  
5-Breathing mechanism varies in different animals. 
 6.- It is confined to certain organs only. 


1- It is a biochemical process involving exchange of gases and oxidation of food.
 2. It releases energy that is stored in ATP (adenosine tri-phosphte).  
3. It is an intracellular process. 
 4. It involves a number of enzymes in oxidation. 
 5. Respiratory mechanism is similar in all animals.
6. It occurs in all cells of the body.  

☆Difference between Combustion ( Burning) and Respiration

Combustion ( Burning)

1. Many chemical bonds break simultaneously,releasing a large amount of energy at a time.
 2. Temperature rises considerably.
3.  Most of the energy dissipates away as heat.  No ATP is formed.
 4. No enzymes are involved.
 5. No intermediate products are formed.
 6. Burning is an uncontrolled process.
 7. Light is often emitted.


1. Chemical bonds break one after another, releasing energy gradually.
 2.Most of the energy is entrapped in new chemical bond (ATP) so that little is lost as heat.
 3.Temperature remains low.
4. Each step is controlled by an enzyme.
 5. Many intermediate products are formed.
 6. Respiration occurs in a controlled manner.
7. No light is emitted.

☆Difference between Photosynthesis and Respiration


1. It is an anabolic process as it results in 
(i) synthesis of organic molecules (glucose) from simple inorganic molecules, and 
(ii) increase in weight. 
 2.It uses CO2 and  H2O.
  3. It is endergonic process as it stores chemical energy in the bonds of organic compounds formed. 
 4. It takes place in sunlight only. 
 5. It is confined to the green parts of the plants.
  6. It occurs in the chloroplasts. 
 7. Plants can live for many days without photosynthesis.


 1. It is a catabolic process as it results in
 (i) breakdown of organic molecules (chiefly glucose) into simple inorganic ones, and
 (ii) decrease in weight. 
2. It releases CO2 and H2O.
3. It is exergonic_process as it  releases chemical energy of the bonds in organic compounds. 
4. It takes place all the time (day and night). 
5. It occurs in the cells of all parts. 
6. It occurs partly in the cytoplasm and partly in the mitochondria.  
7. Organisms soon die without respiration.

☆Difference between Vital and Total Lung Capacities

Vital Capacity of Lung

 1. Amount of air exhaled with maximum effort and inhaled with maximum effort.
2. It is the sum total of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume and expiratory reserve volume.
  3. It ranges between 3.5 to 4.5 liters.

Total Lung Capacity

 1. Amount of air inhaled effort and exhaled forcibly plus residual volume.
  2. It is the sum total of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume and residual volume.  
3. It ranges from 5 to 6 liters.

Some important important topics 

 Bohr effect

Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid that lower the pH in active tissue and induces oxyhaemoglobin to give up more of its O2. This phenomenon is called Bohr effect.  
          Bohr   effect plays an important role in enhancing oxygenation of the blood in the lungs and also in the release of oxygen in the tissues. 
 From a tissue capillary bed, the deoxygenated blood enters the veins as venous blood.  

Chloride shift

Exit of bicarbonate ions considerably changes ionic balance between the plasma and the erythrocytes.  To restore the ionic balance, the chloride ions diffuse from the plasma into the erythrocytes.  This movement of chloride ions is known as Chloride shift or Hamburger’s phenomenon.

Haldane effect

Binding of oxygen with haemoglobin tends to displace carbon dioxide from the blood.  This phenomenon is called Haldane effect.
              It results from the simple fact that combination of oxygen with haemoglobin causes it to become infants a stronger acid which, in turn, displaces carbon rate important role in promoting carbon dioxide dioxide from the blood.  
Haldane effect plays for important role in promoting carbon dioxide transport than is the Bohr effect in promoting oxygen.

Related Topics -:

Human respiratory system

Respiratory system diseases

Respiratory system in hindi

 Human digestive system

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