☆ What is Respiratory system?
Respiratory system is a catabolic process (break down of food into simple form) and also biochemical process.It defined as ” Exchange of environmental oxygen into carbon dioxide take place between body and the outside complete environment.”
- In other words we can say exchange of gases (viz. Oxygen and carbon dioxide) and oxidation of food. is Respiratory system.
“A process in which oxidation of organic compounds occurs in cell and energy is released is called as Respiration.”
Environmental Oxygen–>utilized by the organism———>to break down food ——–>Energy released ( by various activities in cells)———–>Carbon dioxide ( outer environment).
Food + Oxygen —> Carbon dioxide+ Water+ Energy
Respiratory system parts and functions☆☆
☆5 main functions of the respiratory system
- Provide oxygen to tissue and excretion of carbon dioxide.
- Excretionof volatile substance like ammonia.
- Regulation of temperature through loss of heat in the expired air.
- Maintanceof pH of blood .
- Regulationof water balance through excretion of water vapour .
|Working of Lungs in Respiratory system|
Two types of Respiratory system –
(In presence of oxygen)
Respiration involve use of molecular oxygen and release of carbon dioxide simultaneously. Such respiration is called aerobic respiration or aerobic metabolism.
Some important points are -:
- This process is start in the Cytoplasm .
- Continues in the mitochondria.
- Each glucose molecule release 38ATP energy.
- Water and carbon dioxide are produced as the waste products.
- It occurs in plant and animal cells both.
- It consists of 5 steps: glycolysis, pyruvate, oxidation,TCA cycle,ETS and chemosmotic ATP synthesis.
- The release of energy in aerobic process is alot greater than in the anaerobic process.
Glucose + oxygen———–> carbon dioxide+ water+ large amount of energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2——->6CO2+ 6H2O+38ATP( 2830k) energy
☆ Aerobic respiration is of two main types
- Indirect Respiration
☆ Types of indirect respiration involving special respiratory organs are briefly described below –
i. Cutaneous Respiration-:
The exchange of respiratory gases through the vascular skin is called cutaneous respiration.It take place in annelids, cutaneous and amphibians.
- It function in water as well as on land.
ii. Buccopharyngeal respiration:-
The exchange of respiratory gases through the thin , vascular lining of the baccopharyngeal cavity in certain amphibians such as frogs and toads is termed buccopharyngeal respiration.
- It occurs in air.
iii. Branchial respiration-:
The exchange of respiratory gases in the gills is known as branchial respiration.
- It found in mammals, annelids, most crustaceans and molluscs,some insects larvae,echinoderms,all fishes and some amphibians.
- It occurs in water only.
iv. Pulmonary respiration-:
Some amphibians and land animals,namely reptiles,birds and mammals breathe atmospheric air with lungs .This exchange of gases through lungs is called pulmonary respiration
2- Anaerobic respiration
(In absence of oxygen)
☆ Some important points are-:
☆ Difference between Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration /Metabolism
|Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration |
☆Other parts of Respiratory system
The surface at which exchange of gases (CO2 and O2) occurs is termed respiratory surface.
Most of the earth’s oxygen occurs in the air, but some is dissolved in water.Thus, air or water may serve as the source of oxygen for animals.The source of oxygen is called respiratory medium.
The substance respired are called Respiratory substrate. These are carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
☆ What is ATP ?
The word ATP stand for adenosine tri-phosphate.
- ATP was discovered by Lipmann.
- Also known as Energy currency of cell.
- It is nucleotide that perform many essential roles in the cell .
- The word ADP stand for adenosine di- phosphate.
- Theenergy release during process of respiration is used to build up an ATP molecule from ADP and inorganic phosphate(pi).
- The energy equivalent to 30.5kj/mol is released.
- Act is act as a mediator.
- ATP also act as Coenzyme .
- ATP is also called energy currency of the cell .