What is blood ?| Blood components,structure,functions

☆ What  is  Blood ?

Blood  is the fluid connective tissue present in vertebrates. It is to supply nutrients and constitutional elements to tissues and to remove waste products . The blood is plays a vital role in the body and is often called the “river of life “.

                          An average  person has about 4 to 6 liters of blood. It forms 6 -10% of the body weight and some 30 – 35 % of the extra cellular fluid . The study of blood is called haematology ( G. haima = blood , logos = study ).


       Blood is the red liquid that circulates in the arteries and veins of human and other vertebrate animals , carrying oxygen and other elements. carbon dioxide and other waste materials to the lungs,kidney ,heart , vascular system and digestive system to be removed from the body. “

Working of blood , flow of blood
Flow of blood with its components


What is the blood made up of ?

Blood is made up of two parts liquid and solids.  The liquid part is called plasma (55%) . Plasma is made up of water ,salts and proteins and plasma which makes up  45-55% of blood volume (over half of our blood is plasma) . The solid part of our blood contains red blood cells , white blood cells , and platelets(45%). These solid part combine to make the remaining blood volume.

What is colour of blood ? 

Blood of human is red because of protein haemoglobin which contains iron. The iron reacts with oxygen , giving blood is red colour. 

         Oxygenated blood is bright red which is flow through artery, while deoxygenated blood is dark reddish purple which is flow through vein.

Blood in drop
Colour of blood

☆Structure of blood

 Blood is an opaque,mobile fluid connective tissue , mesodermal in origin . It is sticky and slightly heavier than water about five times thicker bulk for bulk (specific gravity 1.06 ) . It has a saltish taste and nature is slightly alkaline or basic (pH- 7.4) . It’s osmotic pressure at 37°C is about 7.6 atmospheres. They appear as biconcave discs of uniform shape and size (7.2 microns) and lack organelles and granules. Temperature of blood 38 degrees  or 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (always slightly higher than body thicker )  .

Structure of blood components
Structure of blood

☆Functions of blood

 The primary function of blood is to supply nutrients and other  elements.

Basic functions of blood include are

i.Transport  nutrients, waste products,blood gases or signalling molecules.

ii. To maintain homeostasis of water,ions or pH.

iii. Distribution of heat throughout the body.

iv. Immune function

v. Blood clotting

Some other functions of blood

Blood has a number of functions that are central to survival, including

a. Transport of blood :-

 Plasma transports digested food to different organs and tissues of the body.

b. Removal of excretory substances:-

 Waste substances from the tissues are removed and carried to the kidneys for elimination.

c. Disposal of CO2 :-

 Major portion of CO2, from the tissues is removed by plasma where it remains dissolved in the form of bicarbonates.

d. Transport of oxygen :

Certain percentages of O2, is also transported by plasma. Even the oxygen  which is bounded by the red blood cells is first dissolved in the plasma before reaching the cell.

e. Distribution of hormones :-

The secretions of various endocrine glands are transported by plasma.

 f. Distribution of Vitamins :-

Plasma transports and distributes vitamins absorbed along with  digested food to various body cells.

☆How does blood travel in the body and what problems occur ?

Our blood travel over a thousand times faster in the aorta ( about 30 cm/sec) than in the capillaries (about 0.026 cm /sec) . The rule that governs the flow of fluids through pipes is the Law of Continuity.

       According to this law , decrease in the diameter of a pipe speeds up the flow of fluid . Due to this law , blood should flow faster in the capillaries than through the arteriole because the capillaries are much narrower.                   Our blood is traveling undergoes important process ; waste filtration. Whn blood leaves the body’s tissues to travel back to our heart and lungs .It carries excess nutrients and other elements that our body are not use.

  In our body problem or diseases occurs are many which are explain below :-

Diseases of the Blood


Diagram of Hemophilia


  • What is hemophilia ?                                 

    Hemophilia is a disease where, there is low or no blood protein,causing an inability to produce blood clots. 

  • How many types of hemophilia disease ?

There are two types of hemophilia : Type A, which is a deficiency in factor VIII   There are factor VIII and Type B (Christmas disease) a deficiency on factor IX . 

  • How is hemophilia diagnosed ?  

People with hemophilia do not have the ability to make blood clots , even a little cut may kill them or the smallest bump to the body could cause severe bruising that doesn’t get better for months .

  • Why hemophilia is Christmas disease ?

Christmas disease , also called hemophilia B (a deficiency on factor IX) ,is a rare genetic disorder in which blood does not clot . This disease named is based on Stephen Christmas ,who was the first person to diagnosed with this disease in 1952 .

  • Who is most affected by hemophilia ?

Hemophilia A ( which is a deficiency in factor VIII ) is hereditary because it is an 

X- chromosome linked condition, male are more typically affected than females. Because Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. In U.S. hemophilia A affects 1 in 5000 male births and approximately 400 babies are born with haemophilia each year.

  • Did Queen Victoria have hemophilia?

Queen Victoria of England (1837-1901),was carrier of hemophilia B , a deficiency on factor IX. The hemophilia disease was  passed  down to her son Leopold who ended up dying at age 31 . She had also two daughters who were carriers. These daughters passed hemophilia into the Spanish,German and Russian royal families.

Queen Victoria image
Queen Victoria
  • Why did Queen victoria have  hemophilia?

Queen Victoria as female carrier of haemophilia . She has passed down this diseases  in her family through  gene mutation (mutation is a change  or transformation in chromosome and gene, which typically manifest physically). Victoria’s two or three daughters and four grand daughters were carriers who passed the gene to the next generation , without themselves being  afflicted with the disorder .

Haemophilia disease also known as Royal disease
Hemophilia disease in her family passed by Queen Victoria


  • Why do  royals have hemophilia ?

Hemophilia is also known as the ‘Royal disease’ .This is because Hemophilia disease gene was passed from Queen Victoria who became Queen of England (1837- 1901), to the families of Spanish , German and Russian royal families .Queen Victoria’s gene  for hemophilia was caused by spontaneous mutation .

  • How can hemophilia be prevented or cure?
  1.  Clot- preserving medications

       These medications help to prevent blood clot from breaking down    2. First aid for  minor cutsUsing pressure and a bandage will generally take care of the bleeding. If small cut in body use an ice pack . Ice pack helps to blood clot affected area.    3. Vaccination Hemophilia consider receiving immunization against Hepatitis A and B. Home remedies

  1. Exercise regularly

Daily exercise such as swimming, bicycle , walking ,and play safely sports .   2. Protect your child from injuries that could cause bleedingElbow pads , helmet and safety belt all may help to prevent injuries from falls and other accidents .Keep your home of furniture with sharp corners and sharp things.             

        Best way to treat Hemophilia is to replace the  missing blood clotting factor so that the blood can clot properly. This typically is done by injecting treatment products, called clotting factor concentration, into a person’s vein.


Working of Anaemia diseases
Anaemia diseases  in blood
  • What is Anaemia ?

Anaemia (AmE) or anaemia (BrE, c) , from the Greek (varia) meaning ‘without blood ‘  refers to a deficiency of red blood cells (RBCs) and haemoglobin.  This result in a reduced ability of blood to transfer oxygen for survival,varying degrees of anaemia can have wide range of clinical consequences.

  • What is main cause of anaemia ?

The main reason of anaemia is caused by a shortage  of iron in our body. Our bone marrow needs iron to make haemoglobin. Without  adequate iron, our body can not produce enough haemoglobin for red blood cells.

Other main causes of anaemia include excessive blood loss (actually such as , haemorrhage or chronically through low – volume loss ) , excessive blood cell destruction (haemolysis ) and deficient red blood cell production ( ineffective haematopoiesis

  • What is the fastest way to cure anaemia?

The fastest way to cure anaemia is intake to increase Vitamin C .

Vitamin B12  is to cure pernicious anaemia Source of of vitamin B12 are –Beef,fish,eggs , yogurt , milk , cheese, soya based beverage etc.Medicines to help our body make more red blood cells . Some of these medicines are-Antibiotic to treat infections , man – made  version of erythropoietin to stimulate our body to make more red blood cells.Surgery is need  when serious causing  anaemia you have .

Sickle cell


Sickle cell

  • What is Sickle cell ?

Sickle cell is a group of inherited red blood cell disorder. Healthy red blood cells are round ,and they are moving through small blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body but in Sickle cell diseases the red blood cells are C- shaped and this red blood cells are sticky and hard .The cells die early , leaving a shortage of healthy red blood cells ( sickle cell anaemia ) and  can block blood flow causing pain ( sickle cell crisis ) that’s why shortage in blood in our body . 

Sickle cell anaemia, what is Sickle cell?
Flow of Sickle cell disease blood
  • How do you get  Sickle cell disease ?

Sickle cell diseases is a general term for a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S or Hb S).  A parents who receives the defective gene from both father and mother develops the disease;  a person, who receives one defective and one healthy allele remains healthy, but can pass on the disease and is known as a carrier.  If two parents who are carriers have a child , there is a 1 – in – 4 chance of their child developing the illness and a 1-in-2 chance of their child just being a carrier .Sickle cell produces no symptoms or  problems of the people . 

  • How sickle cell diagnosed ?

Sickle cell diagnosed  by a sample blood test that detects the presence of the abnormal haemoglobin protein . Sickle cell patients who test positive, they are abnormal red blood cells detected in patients blood .


Diagram of Leukaemia

  • What is Leukaemia ? 

  Leukaemia is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes).  It is part of the broad group of diseases called haematological neoplasms .  Damage to the bone marrow, by way of displacing the normal marrow cells with increasing numbers of malignant cells, results in a lack of blood platelets, which are important in the blood clotting process.  This means people with leukaemia may become bruised, bleed excessively, or develop pin – prick bleeds (petechiae).  White blood cells, which are involved in fighting pathogens, may be suppressed or dysfunctional, putting the patient at the risk of developing infections.  The red blood cell deficiency leads to anaemia, which may cause dyspnea.  

  •  How is Leukaemia diagnosed ?

All symptoms may also be attributable to other diseases for diagnosis, blood tests and a bone marrow biopsy are required.  

Factor V Leiden

The opposite of haemophilia, factor V Leiden is the name given to a variant of human factor V that causes a hypercoagulability disorder.  In this disorder the Leiden variant of factor V, cannot be inactivated by activated protein C. Factor V Leiden is the most common hereditary hypercoagulability disorder amongst Eurasians.  It is named after the city Leiden (The Netherlands), where it was first identified in 1994 by Prof. R. Bertina et.al.  Those that have it are at a slightly higher risk of developing blood clots than those without.  Those that test positive for factor V should avoid ( oral contraceptives , obesity , smoking , and high blood pressure ).

  • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), also called consumptive coagulopathy , is a pathological process in the body, where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body.  This depletes the body of its platelets and coagulation factors and there is a paradoxically increased risk of haemorrhage.  It occurs in critically ill patients, especially those with Gram negative sepsis (particularly meningococcal sepsis) and acute promyelocytic leukaemia. 

☆Importance of blood

Blood is most important for our body. Blood are also called as ‘River of  life ‘ . Through blood supply oxygen , nutrients and other essential elements in our body . Blood also transport metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Blood  are also important to help carbon dioxide and other waste materials to the lungs, kidney and digestive system to be removed from the body . Blood is  also help to fights infections and carries hormones around the body .

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