Best way to learn white blood cells with tricks

White blood cells

White blood cells are different from red blood cells in  the fact that they are usually larger in size 10-14 micrometres in diameter. White blood cells do not contain hemoglobin which in turn makes them translucent . Many times in diagram or pictures white blood cells are represented in a blue colour, mainly because blue is the colour of the stain used to see the cells . White blood cells also have nuclei ; that are some what segmented and are surrounded by electron inside the membrane .

            White blood cells

  • What are white blood cells ? 

White blood cells are  made in the bone marrow but they also divide in the blood and lymphatic systems. They are commonly amoeboid ( cells that move or feed ) by means of temporary projections , called pseudopods ( false feet ) and escape the circulatory system through the capillary beds . They help the body  to fight infection and other diseases . White blood cells also called as leukocytes or white blood corpuscles .It is a cellular components of blood which have absent hemoglobin and present nucleus .

  • What are the main role of  white blood cells ?

They protect against illness and disease.  Think of white blood cells as your immunity cells . They flow through your bloodstream to fight viruses , bacteria and other foreign invader that threaten your health .

 

  • How do white blood cells fight infection ?

White blood cells are detect and deal with infections or foreign molecules that are enter in our body . White blood cells are produce antibodies to fight  the infection and help with other immune response .

Shape of WBCs 

  • What is shape of white blood cells ?

The WBCs  are rounded or irregular cells. They can change their shape and are capable of amoeboid movement . This enables them to squeeze out of capillaries into the tissues. Thus process is called diapedesis .

 
  • What  are the size of   white blood cells ?
The white blood cells are mostly larger than the  . They range in size from 12 to 20 micrometer .
 

Number of white blood cells

  • What is the normal range of  WBC ?

The WBCs are far fewer than the RBCs . Their number varies from 6,000 to 8,000 per cubic milimeter of blood . This number is the total count of WBCs . 

 

  • What does an abnormal white blood count mean ?
It may increase or decrease abnormally in certain conditions . Rise in WBC count is called leucocytosis . It is physiological response to infections ( e.g., pneumonia ) , inflammation such as appendicitis , and malignancies such as leukemia ( blood cancer ) . 

 

  • What does a low white blood  count mean ?

Fall or low  in WBC count is termed leucopenia . It occurs in conditions such as folic acid deficiency , infection of  AIDS virus . WBC count is useful in diagnosing diseases. 

 

  • What is the symptoms of low white blood cells ?

    When your white blood cell count is low may not have any signs and symptoms when developing an infection such as :- Redness , swelling , pus formation (when injury in your body)  , cough , sputum , nasal drainage ( respiratory infections ) etc.

 
  • What diseases affect white blood cells ?
    White blood cells disorder in human body are 
  • LYMPHOMA :- Lymphoma is a blood cancer that occur in human body’s lymphatic system .

     

  • LEUKAEMIA :- Leukaemia is a blood cancer in which malignant white blood cells multiply inside our bone marrow ; possible cause include genetic predisposition ,smoking , and chemical or radiation exposure .

Leukemia disorder

  •  LEUKOCYTOSIS :- Leukocytosis is an increased number of white blood cells . It’s causes include bacterial or viral infections , certain medications, allergies , smoking , inflammatory diseases , autoimmune disorder, genetic condition and cancer .
  • CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASES :- This is a disorder where multiple types of WBCs such as ,neutrophils,monocytes , macrophages lymphocytes are unable to function properly . It is an inherited condition and result in multiple infections .

Colour 

  • What is colour of white blood cells ?
         The WBCs are colourless . It’s flow with red blood cells and fight with infection .

Structure

  • How does white blood cells structure ?
 The leucocytes are nucleated cells. Their cytoplasm contains mitochondria , Golgi apparatus and centrioles besides other organelles .

Formation

Formation of leucocytes is called leucopoiesis . It occurs in lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and red bone marrow .

Life span and Disposal 

  • What is the lifespan and disposal of white blood cells ?
The leucocytes survive for a few (3-4) days in the blood . Dead WBCs are phagocytized in blood , liver and lymph nodes. 
 

Types of white blood cells

The WBCs are of two main types : granular leucocytes or granulocytes and non- granular leucocytes or agranulocytes . Both types have subtypes .
 
  • How many types of white blood cells are there ?
There are two main types of white blood cells. i.e. Agranulocytes and Granulocytes .
 
  1. Agranulocytes                                                           

    These leucocytes lack granules in the cytoplasm and have nonlobed, rounded or oval nucleus . Agranulocytes are called mononuclear cells . They have 2 subtypes : monocytes and lymphocytes . The monocytes arise in the bone marrow. The B and T lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and thymus respectively , and mature in spleen and lymph nodes . Formation of agranulocytes is termed agranulopoiesis .                             

2. Granulocytes                                                               

 These leucocytes contain granules in the cytoplasm and have lobed nucleus. They are produced in the red bone marrow . Formation of granulocytes is called granulopoiesis . They have 3 subtypes : basophils , eosinophils and neutrophils .

 

Types of WBCs, Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
 
  • What is monocytes in WBCs ?

These are the largest of all types of  leucocytes . They have a large , subrounded or bean- shaped nucleus and good amount of cytoplasm . They are very motile. They are phagocytic in action , and engulf  bacteria and cellular debris . Generally they change into macrophages after entering tissue spaces .

 

Monocyte

 

  • What is lymphocytes in WBCs ? 

These are about the size of the red corpuscles. They have a very large , rounded nucleus and scanty cytoplasm . They are non motile and non phagocytic . They secrete antibodies to destroy microbes and their toxins, reject grafts and kill tumor cells . They also help in healing of injuries. The lymphocytes differentiate into 2 main types : B lymphocytes and T- lymphocytes . 

 

Lymphocyte

 

  • What is basophils in WBCs ?

These take up basic stains such as methylene blue . They are fairly large and have nearly S- shaped nucleus and a few coarse granules . Granules contain histamine . The basophils release histamine and heparin by exocytosis into the blood .

Basophil

 
 
  • What is eosinophils in WBCs ?

These stain acidic dyes such as eosin . They are also fairly large and have bilobed nucleus and abundant coarse granules. The latter contain hydrolytic enzymes and peroxidase which are discharge into the phagosome . The eosinophils have antihistamine properties . Their number increases in people with allergic conditions such as  asthma or hayfever . They also help in dissolving blood clot.

 

Eosinophil

 
  •  What is  neutrophils in WBCs ?

These stain equally well with both basic and acidic dyes. They are quite large and have many- lobed nucleus and abundant fine , azurophilic granules . The latter represent lysosomes with hydrolytic enzymes. The  eosinophils are phagocytic in action. They engulf microbes . They are chemotactically attracted to bacterial peptidase .

 

Neutrophil

 

 

Function of White blood cells

The white blood cells act as the soldiers , scavengers and builders of the body .

(a) Soldiers :- 

Neutrophils and monocytes defend the body against the attacks of microorganisms . They collect at the site of infection and engulf the invaders . This action is called phagocytosis . Lymphocytes and eosinophils destroy toxins released by the microbes .

(b) Builders :-

Lymphocytes help in scar- formation after injury to heal the wounds . They also form collagen and elastin fibres . They may enter bone marrow and form erythrocytes and  neutrophils .

(c) Scavengers :-

Neutrophils and monocytes also phagocytize the dead cells to clean the body.
 

Tricks to remember white blood cells 

     ‘ Never Let Monkey Eat Banana

                           OR

                  ‘  MoLy BaEoNe

         ↡

Mo – Monocytes
LY – Lymphocytes
Ba – Basophils     
Eo – Eosinophils
Ne – Neutrophils    

         

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